Submitted to: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2006
Publication Date: 3/25/2006
Citation: Corsi, S., Geis, S., Loyo-Rosales, J.E., Rice, C. 2006. Tracing toxicity in aircraft deicers/anti-icers and runoff from airports: contributions from additives alkylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1h-benzotriazoles. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Abstracts. p. 5.
Interpretive Summary: .
Technical Abstract: Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identity of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary between manufacturer and type of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) is more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Microtox, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7,700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1,550 to 45,100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1,300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18,400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with these additives. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives. Additive signatures in toxic samples collected from airport runoff at two major airports are used to identify which ADAF formulations are present in these samples. A Type I formulation dominates the signature at one airport and a more toxic Type IV formulation dominates the signature from the other airport.