Submitted to: International Food Technology
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/6/2006
Publication Date: 6/24/2006
Citation: Williams, J., Howe, J.C., Trainer, D., Snyder, C., Boillot, K., Lofgren, P., Buege, D., Douglass, L., Holden, J.M. Nutritional changes in fresh pork cuts from 1991-2005. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting + Food Expo, June 24-26, 2006, Orlando, Florida. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: In order to monitor changes in pork composition between 1991 and 2005, a collaborative study was conducted by scientists at USDA, University of Wisconsin, University of Maryland and the National Pork Board. The objectives of this study were: To compare analytical nutrient data from 1991 to that of 2005 in 3 high market-share pork products; To update the nutrient profile of various fresh pork cuts in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Shoulder blade steaks (SBS), tenderloins (TEN) and top loin chops (TLC) were randomly purchased from 12 retail outlets using the USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program sampling plan. Nutrient values for proximates, vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids were determined for raw pork cuts by a commercial laboratory. Analytical quality assurance methods included duplicate sampling, and use of in-house controls and standard reference materials. Nutrient values from 1991 and 2005 were compared statistically using a two-tailed T-test (Critical value =p<0.05). Moisture increased (p<0.001) and total fat decreased (p<0.001) in all 3 cuts. The new cuts reflected a 71% decrease in total fat content when compared to the previous values. Values for total saturated fatty acids reflected the changes in total fat. Cholesterol decreased in SBS (p<0.05), was unchanged in TEN, and increased in TLC (p<0.001). Riboflavin increased, but not significantly, in SBS and TEN. Total phosphorus was substantially increased in all 3 cuts. Niacin was increased in TEN and TLC, which may reflect added dietary niacin in pork feed. Sodium, iron, potassium, vitamins B6 and B12 were also examined but the results were not statistically significant. This research demonstrates significant changes in pork meat quality over time and provides researchers, consumers, nutritionists, medical professionals and government agencies with the necessary information for establishing nutrition policy and recommendations.