Submitted to: International Food Technology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/6/2006
Publication Date: 6/26/2006
Citation: Haytowitz, D.B. Nutrient content and nutrient retention of selected mushrooms. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting + Food Expo, June 24-26, 2006, Orlando, Florida.
Technical Abstract: In 2003 Americans consumed 2.6 pounds per capita of mushrooms. While the white button mushroom remains a frequent component of many recipes, other varieties such as shiitake, enoki, maitake, oyster, portabella, and shiitake are also growing in popularity. To improve and expand the data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Mushroom Council and USDA undertook the sampling and analyses of these mushrooms. Mushroom samples were collected form retail outlets in 12 cities in the US. These were then combined into 4 random composites and analyzed under existing contracts and cooperative agreements managed by NDL. All mushrooms were analyzed raw except for shiitake, which were only stir-fried. Portabella mushrooms were also grilled. White mushrooms were analyzed stir-fried and microwaved, so that retention factors could be developed and used to calculate cooked values for other mushroom varieties. Results of this study show that mushrooms are a good source of several nutrients. These include total dietary fiber, which ranges from 0.6 g/100g in oyster to 3.6 g/100g in shiitake. Potassium ranged from 200 mg/100g in maiitake to 362 mg/100g in both enoki and white. Niacin ranged from 2.4 mg/100g in white to 7.4 mg/100g in enoki. Maiitake contained 28.9 mcg/100g of folate, while other mushrooms contained lower amounts. All minerals and vitamins were well retained (most at 100%) during cooking. Some losses of sodium (due to leaching) and folate and vitamin B6, which are more heat labile, were observed. These new values for mushrooms enabled USDA to update and expand the data on mushrooms in its databases. The Mushroom Council was also able to use the data to promote mushrooms to the public and to provide information on the nutrient content of mushrooms to its members.