Submitted to: International Conference of Dietary Assessment Methods
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/24/2006
Publication Date: 4/26/2006
Citation: Cleveland, L.E., Goldman, J.D., Friday, J.E., Moshfegh, A.J. 2006. Whole grain intake in the USA: Assessment using dietary guidance-based servings versus gram amounts [abstract]. 6th International Conference on Dietary Assessment Methods, April 27-29, 2006, Copenhagen, Denmark. Program & Abstracts. P12-02.
Technical Abstract: In the USA, whole grain intake is typically assessed in servings rather than gram amounts. This permits comparison to national dietary guidance to eat at least 3 servings of whole grains daily. Servings are defined in household units consumers understand (e.g., slices of bread; cups of cereal, rice, or pasta). But servings, as defined by the guidance, do not contain equal gram amounts of whole grain. A bread serving contains about 16 grams while a cereal, rice, or pasta serving contains about 28 grams. To examine associations between whole grain intake and health outcomes, researchers need to know the grams of whole grain consumed rather than the servings. This study uses 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate mean intake of whole grain and non-whole-grain in terms of both servings and grams per day, and to determine the grams of whole grain consumed by individuals who eat 1, 2, and 3 whole-grain servings per day. The percent contribution of food groups to whole grain intake is estimated and contrasted when intake is defined in servings and in grams.