Submitted to: Helia
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/3/2006
Publication Date: 10/1/2006
Citation: Jan, C.C., Miller, J.F., Vick, B.A., Seiler, G.J. 2006. Performance of seven new cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower lines from induced mutation and a Native American variety. Helia. 29(44):47-54. Interpretive Summary: World-wide hybrid sunflower production has been based on one cytoplasm derived from Helianthus petiolaris and a few restoration genes for over 30 years, and the need for genetic diversity of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes is urgent. Of the many new cms sources, there are no reports of their utilization for commercial hybrid production. This reluctance is assumably due to the lack of superior cms-restorer combinations, as well as the time-consuming process of converting both cms and restoration genes into inbred lines. We report our efforts in introducing useful new cms sources after replicated yield tests of six cms mutants and a cms line derived from a Native American variety. Our results suggested that these cms lines are equal or better than the French cmsPET1 cytoplasm currently used for hybrid sunflower production. The new cms lines are in H. annuus cytoplasm and their fertility can be restored by the same restoration gene used in commercial sunflower hybrids. The sunflower industry can quickly utilize these new cms lines by only focusing on the development of the cms lines.
Technical Abstract: Six mutant cms HA 89 lines, cms PI 432513 from a Native American variety, and the French cms PET1 in an HA 89 background were compared in replicated yield trials at Fargo, ND and Casselton, ND in 2003 and 2004. Separate yield trials using the F1 progenies of these eight cms lines pollinated with one oilseed restorer, RHA 274, and one confectionery restorer, RHA 294, were also evaluated. Data collected included lodging percent, days to flower, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter, yield, test weight, seed moisture content, and oil concentration. No significant differences were detected among the eight cms lines for lodging, days to maturity, head diameter, yield, and oil percent. The other traits were significant among lines, but most of them were not significantly different from cms HA 89, with a maximum days to flower of 2 days later, plant height up to 9 cm taller, test weight from 2.8 kg/hl less to 1.2 kg/hl more, and 1000 seed weight from 2.6 g less to 6.0 g more. The six new cms lines are therefore considered agronomically equal to the French cms PET1. A similar interpretation for the parental cms lines can be made for the hybrids. The use of one oilseeds restorer RHA 274, and one confectionery restorer RHA 294 contributed to the significant differences in days to flowering, plant height, test weight, 1000 seed weight, and oil percent. However, the F1 deviations involving the new cms lines from cms HA 89 are still within the acceptable levels of most breeding programs. Based on our results, the seven new cms appear equal to, if not better than, the French cms PET1 cytoplasm for hybrid sunflower production. Since new restoration lines will not be required, the new cms lines can be quickly utilized by the sunflower industry.