|Dombrink Kurtzman, Mary Ann|
Submitted to: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/20/2006
Publication Date: 2/20/2007
Citation: Dombrink Kurtzman, M. 2007. The sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase gene of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium species. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 91:179-189. Interpretive Summary: Total genomic DNA of twelve different species of the genus Penicillium known to be able to make the mycotoxin patulin was analyzed. The research was undertaken to determine if a certain gene in the pathway for production of patulin was present. This information would make it possible to test for the presence of patulin-producing molds in apple juice and apple products. The idh gene of interest was present in all of the Penicillium strains. The sequences were similar to the idh gene in strains of Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum, but there was more variability. Patulin is one of two mycotoxins that are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Technical Abstract: The sequence of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene was determined for twenty-nine strains representing twelve different Penicillium species known to produce the mycotoxin patulin. Isolates of P. carneum, P. clavigerum, P. concentricum, P. coprobium, P. dipodomyicola, P. expansum, P. gladioli, P. glandicola, P. griseofulvum, P. paneum, P. sclerotigenum and P. vulpinum were compared. Primer pairs for DNA amplification and sequencing were designed from the P. griseofulvum gene (GenBank AF 006680). Following translation of the DNA sequences and removal of the two introns present, the amino acid sequences were compared and showed slightly less homology to sequences from strains of P. expansum and P. griseofulvum examined previously. Phylogenetic relationships among the species were determined from rDNA (ITS1, 5.8 S, ITS2 and partial sequences of 28S rDNA) and from the idh nucleotide sequences after removal of the two introns. Maximum parsimony analysis showed trees based on rDNA and idh sequences to be congruent. Results were similar when the two introns of the idh gene were analyzed. Interest in strains of the genus Penicillium is related to their ability to produce the mycotoxin patulin and to cause spoilage of fruit products worldwide. It is anticipated that this genetic information will lead to a better understanding of the patulin biosynthetic pathway and will aid in synthesis of probes to identify these mycotoxigenic fungi.