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Title: The type of species of Apiognomonia, Apiognomonia veneta, with its Discula anamorph is distinct from Apiognomonia errabunda

Author
item Sogonov, Mikhail
item Castlebury, Lisa
item Rossman, Amy
item White, James

Submitted to: Mycological Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/26/2007
Publication Date: 7/3/2007
Citation: Sogonov, M., Castlebury, L.A., Rossman, A.Y., White, J. 2007. The type of species of Apiognomonia, Apiognomonia veneta, with its Discula anamorph is distinct from Apiognomonia errabunda. Mycological Research. 111:693-709.

Interpretive Summary: Fungi cause diseases of hardwood trees that can be extremely damaging. Anthracnose diseases of dogwood, ash, sycamore and beech are caused fungi that reproduce both sexually and asexually but the relationships between these states are not clear. In this research these common fungi on hardwood trees in the northern hemisphere were examined to determine the characteristics that can be seen with a microscope as well as their genetic characteristics. It was determined that these fungi attack different host trees and are known under different names for the sexual and asexual states but are actually all one species. This species occurs both on living leaves and stems as well as on overwintered leaves and is very common in North America and Europe. This fungus is described and illustrated in its many forms and the accurate scientific names for the sexual and asexual states are determined. Molecular data that support this discovery are presented. This research will be used by forest pathologists who are working to breed hardwood trees that are resistant to this disease.

Technical Abstract: Species of Apiognomonia and their Discula anamorphic states in the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales, are known throughout the temperate northern hemisphere and cause diseases such as sycamore anthracnose. The genus Apiognomonia was described based on A. veneta as the type species; however, there has been disagreement about whether or not A. veneta is a synonym of A. errabunda. Using both morphological and DNA sequence data we conclude that A. errabunda and A. veneta are synonyms, thus A. errabunda is the correct name for the type species of Apiognomonia. This conclusion is also based on a combined analysis of sequences from the ITS region of the nuclear rDNA and intron regions from actin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha for 26 isolates from twelve different plant hosts. Similarly, the type species of the genus Discula is its anamorph D. nervisequa, the earliest available epithet for D. platani, the lectotype of Discula. This name has been considered by some to be a synonym of D. umbrinella. However, based on an examination of the type specimen, we determined that D. umbrinella is a different species.