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item Gonsalves, Dennis

Submitted to: Characterization, Diagnosis and Management of Plant Viruses
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/17/2006
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
Citation: Meng, B., Gonsalves, D. 2008. Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus. In: Rao, G.P., Myrta, A., Ling, K.-S., editors. Characterization, Diagnosis & Management of Plant Viruses. Texas: Studium Press LLC. p. 201-222.

Interpretive Summary: Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is widespread among grapevines grown worldwide. The reaction of these viruses on grapevines may depend on presence of a particular strain or on combinations of strains. The development of methodologies to detect GRSPaV and strains of the virus will help to control this disease. This book chapter describes the variation of GRSPaV strains, and the nucleic acid based and serological based methodologies for rapidly detecting GRSPaV. These detection methods have allowed for the rapid and accurate detection of these viruses in grapevines, and subsequently play a major role in selection of GRSPaV free propagation material.

Technical Abstract: Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a recently identified virus and belongs to the Foveavirus genus within the Flexiviridae family. Its single–stranded RNA genome contains five open reading frames that potentially encode the replication related proteins, a triple gene block and the capsid protein. GRSPaV is closely associated with the disease Rupestris stem pitting, a component of the widespread and economically important Rugose Wood disease complex. GRSPaV is composed of a family of sequence variants and the genomes of three distinct isolates are completely sequenced. In general, grapevine scion cultivars that are grown as table and wine grapes are infected with a mixture of distinct sequence variants. We propose here a scenario to account for the possible origin and evolution of different sequence variants of GRSPaV and mixed infection of scion grapes with distinct sequence variants. RT-PCR has been developed for rapid detection of the virus from grapevines; the efficiency of detection varies depending on the primers that were used. Based on the consensus sequenced of multiple sequence variants, ‘universal primers’ have been designed and effectively used for detecting most, if all of, the sequence variants. The availability of the genome sequences has also enabled the development of polyclonal antibodies for use in serological detection of GRSPaV. It has been shown that Western blotting is very effective while ISEM and indirect ELISA are of limited use. Dot immuno-blotting has been attempted as a practical method for the quick assay of large numbers of samples. However, its usefulness needs to be determined.