Submitted to: Genome
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/18/2005
Publication Date: 10/1/2005
Citation: Chikmawati, T., Skovmand, B., Gustafson, J.P. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among secale species revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Genome. 48(5):792-801. Interpretive Summary: Molecular markers were used to analyze the evolutionary relationships between the various species of the rye genus. The study established that the use of molecular markers were capable of clearly identifying the relationships between the various rye species at a level of resolution greater than previous morphological and cytogenetic approaches.
Technical Abstract: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data were utilized to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among 29 accessions representing 14 of the most commonly recognized ranked species or subspecies in the genus Secale. We observed 789 AFLP markers of 1130 fragments utilizing 18 P-/M- and E-/M- primer combinations. All polymorphic fragments were used to construct phenetic and phylogenetic trees. The resulting phenogram and cladogram had similar tree topologies. Cluster analysis showed that Secale sylvestre was the most distantly related to all other ryes. Annual forms were grouped together, and the perennial forms appeared more closely related to each other. This suggested that life cycle could have played an important role in determining the relationships among Secale species. Secale sylvestre was considered to be the most ancient species, whereas Secale cereale was the most recently evolved species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis clearly separated all Secale species into only 3 major species groups, within the genus Secale: S. sylvestre, Secale montanum (syn. Secale strictum) for perennial forms, and S. cereale for annual forms. This study demonstrated that the AFLP approach is a useful tool for discriminating species differences, and also gave a much better resolution in discerning genetic relationships among Secale species as compared with previous studies using other approaches.