Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/28/2005
Publication Date: 8/1/2006
Citation: Olsen, S.C., Mamer, P. 2005. Report of the Vaccine Working Group. Enhancing Brucellosis Vaccines, Vaccine Delivery, and Surveillance Diagnostics for Elk and Bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association Working Symposium, August 16-18, 2005, Laramie, Wyoming, p. 5-12.
Interpretive Summary: Brucella abortus is a disease that causes abortion and associated economic losses in infected cattle herds. The persistence of Brucella abortus in wildlife reservoirs pose a risk to the completion of the Brucellosis Eradication Program for cattle. As part of a workshop, research needs in regards to development of new brucellosis vaccines for wildlife and cattle were identified. Two approaches for vaccine development were identified that would complement each other and together offer the greatest probability for timely introduction of new and improved brucellosis vaccines. Development of new vaccines will be of benefit to the National Park Service, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and the states of Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho in their efforts to resolve the problem caused by wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis. Improvement in brucellosis vaccines as a result of this work will help prevent transmission of brucellosis to cattle herds and assist in the completion of the Brucellosis Eradication Program.
Technical Abstract: Bison and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area are reservoirs of brucellosis and elk have been suspected as the reservoir for recent Brucella abortus infections in Wyoming and Idaho cattle. Although currently available brucellosis vaccines are very efficacious in cattle, they are less protective in bison and induce almost no protection in elk. As part of an international symposium, members of the vaccine working group suggested both basic and applied research approaches for development of new brucellosis vaccines for bison and elk. The applied approach would quickly evaluate new vaccine candidates for efficacy using standardized challenge procedures. The basic approach would develop knowledge on immunologic responses, protective antigens, and host specific responses to facilitate develop of new vaccine candidates. When implemented concurrently, the two approaches would complement each other and would facilitate development of new vaccines if current vaccine candidates prove to be unsatisfactory. Implementation of the working group’s suggestions should be beneficial in developing new tools to assist in controlling and eradicating brucellosis in free-ranging bison and elk.