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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Gottwald, Timothy
item Graham, James

Submitted to: American Phytopathological Society Press On Line Lessons
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2005
Publication Date: 11/30/2005
Citation: Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H. 2005. Aps press online lessons in plant pathology - citrus canker. American Phytopathological Society Press On Line Lessons. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2000-1002-01. (

Interpretive Summary: The manuscript represents the text of a detailed overview on citrus canker. It will be accompanied by over 36 color images and will be published on the American Phytopathological Society web page, APS Press. It is aimed at Plant Pathology undergraduate and graduate students or anyone seeking information on citrus canker. The ‘lesson’ with be combined with others ranging over a diversity of plant diseases and will compose a virtual textbook. The information will be internationally to all interested persons and institutions. The manuscript covers and demonstrates disease symptoms on various citrus tissues, the disease cycle, interaction with insect pests, the causal organism, host susceptibility, pathogen diversity and distribution, the infection process, pathogen dispersal and the effects of weather, disease management and control, and the international history and significance of the disease.

Technical Abstract: Citrus canker is a simple disease and a complex socioeconomic/political problem. The citrus canker eradication program over the past decade has been compromised by legal battles that halted eradication combined with exacerbation of the disease and tree susceptibility by the introduction of the Asian citrus leafminer along with effective dispersal of the causal agent by human mechanical transmission and a series of meteorological events including tropical storms and hurricanes. The nearly decade long eradication and grower compensation programs presently total and unprecedented ~ $1.2 billion. The disease history, symptomology, biology of the pathogen, epidemiology, and disease management are illustrated by figures and examples and presented in detail. The purpose of this web-based publication is to serve as an overview and reference for students in Plant Pathology.

Last Modified: 10/19/2017
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