Submitted to: Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/23/2005
Publication Date: 8/29/2006
Citation: Predel, R., Nachman, R.J. 2006. The fxprlamide (pyrokinin/pban) peptide family. In: Kastin, A., editor. Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides. New York, NY: Elsevier. p. 207-213.
Interpretive Summary: Because of problems with the development of resistance to conventional pesticides, there is a critical need for new concepts and alternative approaches in controlling insect pests. The basic premise of this research is that neuropeptides (short chains of amino acids) serve as potent messengers in insects to regulate vital functions. New, selective control measures may be developed by designing metabolically stable mimics of these neuropeptides that actively inhibit or over-stimulate functions regulated by them, resulting in disruption of the internal environment of the insect. This manuscript is a book chapter that reviews current knowledge about the FXPRLamide neuropeptide family in arthropods. These neuropeptides regulate critical processes associated with reproduction, development and digestion. A deeper understanding of the specific structures of neuropeptides, where they are stored and released, and how these neuropeptides regulate critical processes in insects and other pest arthropods will aid in the design of strategies to disrupt feeding and survival. The work brings us one step closer to the development of practical neuropeptide-like substances that will be effective in controlling pest insects in an environmentally friendly fashion.
Technical Abstract: FXPRLamides are pleiotropic neuropeptides which are mainly associated with the neuroendocrine system. FXPRLamides mediate such diverse functions as pheromone biosynthesis, hindgut/oviduct contraction, melanization, pupariation, and diapause in insects. At least two genes encoding for FXPRLamides are known in insects. A single pyrokinin is always encoded on the capa gene. Homologs are found in many insects and are typical of neurohemal release sites from the abdominal ventral nerve cord. Other FXPRLamides are synthesized in neurosecretory cells of the subesophageal ganglion and transported into the retrocerebral complex. Products of the PBAN (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide) gene are particularly well studied. The vertebrate neuromedin U not only shares C-terminal sequence similarity with insect FXPRLamides, but its receptor exhibits a high degree of similarity with invertebrate FXPRLamide receptors.