Submitted to: Microbes and Infection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/10/2006
Publication Date: 3/31/2006
Citation: Moore, J.E., Barton, M.D., Blair, I.S., Corcoran, D., Dooley, J., Fanning, S., Kempf, I., Lastovica, A.J., Lowery, C.J., Seal, B.S. 2006. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in campylobacter spp.. Microbes and Infection. 8:1955-66. Interpretive Summary: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that food-borne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths in the United States each year with estimates in 2000 for medical costs, productivity losses, and costs of premature deaths that totaled $6.9 billion per year. Among food-borne pathogens active surveillance through FoodNet reports approximately 15 cases are diagnosed each year for every 100,000 persons in the population and campylobacteriosis is estimated to affect over 1 million persons every year, or 0.5% of the general population. Carcasses and poultry products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. provide a major source for the spread of campylobacteriosis in humans and consumption of commercially prepared chicken is the highest risk factor associated with campylobacter infection in the United States. Dramatic increases in isolation of antibiotic resistant C. jejuni have been reported in the U.S. and treatment of chickens with fluoroquinolone-like antibiotics can induce rapid selection of resistant campylobacters. Consequently, the FDA has proposed discontinued use of enrofloxacin (BaytrilTM) that is utilized for the treatment of colibacillosis in chickens and turkeys while Sarafloxacin was withdrawn from use during 2001.
Technical Abstract: Among food-borne pathogens active surveillance through Food-Net reports approximately 15 food-borne disease cases are diagnosed each year for every 100,000 persons in the U.S. population and campylobacteriosis is estimated to affect over 1 million persons every year, or 0.5% of the general population. Antibiotic resistance, particularly with the fluoroquinolones and macrolide antibiotics, has now emerged globally with thermophilic campylobacters, including Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, giving rise to concerns about how these organisms have acquired such resistance characteristics, as well as consequences for human and animal treatment. The review article examines (i) the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in human and animal thermophilic campylobacters, (ii) an update on resistance rates globally, (iii) surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in campylobacters originating from animals, particularly poultry, (iv) the role of the environment in the acquisition and transmission of antibiotic resistant campylobacters, as well as (v). examining issues of biocide resistance in campylobacters. Because of the development of antibiotic resistance among food-borne bacterial agents found in poultry, the FDA has proposed discontinued use of enrofloxacin (BaytrilTM) that is utilized for the treatment of colibacillosis in chickens and turkeys while Sarafloxacin was withdrawn from use during 2001.