Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/30/2006
Publication Date: 1/8/2007
Citation: Wang, S.Y., Feng, R., Bowman, L., Lu, Y., Ballington, J.R., Ding, M. 2007. Antioxidants in deerberries reduce free radical production, inhibit activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappab but induce human leukemia cell apoptosis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 40:1352-1361. Interpretive Summary: Deerberry is a low, slender shrub. The fruit of deerberry resemble cranberries. Deerberry fruit contain high amount of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. However, being a minor crop, deerberries received little attention for research and little information is available on the health benefits. We have investigated fruit quality and antioxidant content of three deerberry genotypes. We have also looked into the effect of deerberry extracts on cancer development in human leukemia cells. We found that fruit quality and antioxidant content vary among different genotypes. We also found that some deerberry extracts exhibited anti-cancer activity. These results indicate that consuming deerberry fruit may be beneficial to human health. Information obtained from this research is valuable for other scientists and consumers interested in antioxidant compounds in fruit and improving human health.
Technical Abstract: Fruit from three genotypes of deerberries [Vaccinium stamineum L.] were evaluated for fruit quality, total anthocyanin and phenolic contents, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and anti-cancer properties. The fruit soluble solids, titratable acids, total anthocyanins, and total phenolic contents varied with genotypes. Cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-arabinoside were the two predominant anthocyanins. Resveratrol was also found in deerberries. Among the three genotypes, ‘B-76’ had higher amount of anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and resveratrol than ‘B-59’ and ‘SHF-3A’. Deerberries contained potent free radical scavenging activities for 2, 2-Di (4-tert-octylphenyl) -1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, peroxyl radical, superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen radicals and also had high activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase. Among the three genotypes, B-76 had highest level of antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activity. Pretreatment of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells with deerberry extracts produced an inhibition on the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-'B) induced by either 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol -13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB). Extracts from deerberries blocked TPA- or UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERKs and MEK½, two upstream regulaters of AP-1. The deerberry extracts also induced apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-independent manner. These results suggest that the inhibition of TPA- or UVB-induced AP-1 and NF-'B activity by deerberry extracts may mediated through the ERKs and MEK1/2 signal pathway.