Submitted to: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2006
Publication Date: 9/1/2006
Citation: Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E., Kitching, I.J. 2006. Phylogeny and classification of finlaya and allied taxa (diptera: culicidae: aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Interpretive Summary: Generic-level taxa included in the large, heterogenous, mosquito taxon “Finlaya”, along with related species, were analysed using cladistic procedures to determine their phylogenetic relationships. All life stages of the included species were evaluated. Many of the species studied were previously placed in this genus in an uncertain status but are now assigned to confirmed generic-level taxa. Unfortunately, because of insufficient specimens or published descriptions some species could not be placed with certainty in a recognizable genus. Since a number of species evaluated in the present study are important in the transmission of pathogens to humans and domesticated animals the above information will be of value in epidemiological and control programs. This work was completed at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture. The article will be published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.
Technical Abstract: The phylogenetic relationships and generic assignments of ‘Finlaya’ and related taxa of uncertain taxonomic position in the classification of Aedini proposed by Reinert et al. (2004) are explored using 232 characters from eggs, fourth-instar larvae, pupae, adults and immature habitat coded for 116 exemplar species. The ingroup comprises 74 species, including 41 currently classified as ‘Finlaya’, 25 formerly placed in this group and eight related species. The outgroup includes four non-aedine species and 38 aedine species representing all generic-level taxa of the polyphyletic ‘Ochlerotatus’ and major clades within the polyphyletic ‘Aedes’ in figure 4 of Reinert et al. The data are analyzed in a total-evidence approach using implied weighting. The analysis produced 52 most parsimonious cladograms (MPCs) consisting of two conflicting topologies, the recovery of which depends on the optimization of a missing character in one species. Of the 52 MPCs, 38 exhibit one topology (Topology 1) and 14 exhibit an alternative (Topology 2). Thirteen Topology 1 MPCs are rejected because they are not based on objectively coded character data. The strict consensus tree (SCT) of the remaining 25 Topology 1 and 14 Topology 2 MPCs corroborates the monophyly of the 13 genera proposed by Reinert et al. that are included in the analysis. Overall, the results show remarkable congruence with those of Reinert et al. despite differences in the taxa included and morphological characters examined in the two studies. Based on the strength of character support and application of the principle of equivalent rank, 15 new genera are proposed for monophyletic clades. Bruceharrisonius stat. nov., Macleaya stat. nov., Molpemyia stat. nov. and Pseudoskusea stat. nov. are raised from subgeneric rank within ‘Ochlerotatus’; Danielsia stat. nov., Hulecoeteomyia stat. nov. and Phagomyia stat. nov. are resurrected from synonymy with Finlaya; and Dahliana gen. nov. (Culex geniculatus Olivier), Georgecraigius gen. nov. (Culex atropalpus Coquillett), Himalaius gen. nov. (Finlaya gilli Barraud), Jarnellius gen. nov. (Culex varipalpus Coquillett), Jihlienius gen. nov. (Aedes crossi Lien), Patmarksia gen. nov. (Leucomyia australiensis variety papuensis Taylor), Rampamyia gen. nov. (Culex notoscriptus Skuse) and Vansomerenis gen. nov. (Aedes pulchrithorax Edwards) are introduced for the type species indicated in parentheses, and their allies. Additionally, Horsfallius subg. nov. (Culex fluviatilis Lutz) and Lewnielsenius subg. nov. (Aedes muelleri Dyar) are introduced as subgenera of Georgecraigius and Jarnellius, respectively. As is usual with generic-level groups of Aedini, these genera are polythetic taxa that are diagnosed by unique combinations of characters. The analysis also shows that ‘Oc. (Protomacleaya)’ is a polyphyletic assemblage of species, which is retained as a non-monophyletic taxon until the included species can be classified into monophyletic groups.