Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/6/2005
Publication Date: 1/15/2006
Citation: Metakovsky, E.V., Graybosch, R.A. 2006. Gliadin alleles in wheat: identification and applications. Book Chapter. Pp.85-114
Technical Abstract: Hexaploid or common bread wheat (2n=42) is a self-pollinated crop, with three genomes designated A, B and D, each composed of seven chromosome pairs. Each Gli locus encodes a group (or block) of gliadin electrophoretic components. Analysis of progenies from crosses between different wheat cultivars showed that all gliadin bands under the control of one Gli locus are, as a rule, inherited together as a unit, or as one character. A group of jointly inherited gliadin electrophoretic bands is called a “block”. Allelic relationships are demonstrated between variants of Gli loci through analysis of inheritance of gliadin electrophoretic bands. Mutually exclusive (allelic) variants of one Gli locus encode blocks differing in number, electrophoretic mobility and staining intensity of electrophoretic bands. The differences between most of the alleles of the same locus are consistent and may be recognized well by visual analysis of the electrophoregram. The landrace Chinese Spring is accepted as possessing the allelic variant “a” at all six Gli loci.Wheat breeding, production, collection maintenance, and scientific investigations all require authenticity of samples. Indeed, in many countries, all newly bred cultivars, before being marketed, undergo statutory testing, which requires varieties be uniform and distinct from those already registered. This testing forms the basis for the system of intellectual property protection. Utilization of a cultivar for grain production as well as in scientific investigations also requires a system to confirm that seeds belong to the indicated variety and is sufficiently pure. Monitoring of intra- and inter-cultivar polymorphism is essential not only for statutory testing and seed certification, but also for adequate management of wheat genetic resources to preserve biodiversity in collections including the natural heterogeneity of accessions.