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item Vaughn, Steven
item Holloway, Ray
item Duval, Sandra
item Berhow, Mark

Submitted to: Phytochemical Society of North America Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/3/2005
Publication Date: 8/3/2005
Citation: Vaughn, S.F., Holloway, R.K., Duval, S.M., Berhow, M.A. 2005. Biofumigation potential of glucosinolate-containing seedmeals. Phytochemical Society of North America Proceedings.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Defatted seedmeals from fifteen glucosinolate-containing plant species were analyzed for biofumigation potential by determining inhibition of seedling emergence when added to a sandy loam soil containing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sicklepod [Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby] seeds at rates of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 % (w/w). In general, the seedmeals were more phytotoxic to wheat than sicklepod. For wheat, nine of the seedmeals completely inhibited seedling emergence at the 1% level, but at the 0.1% rate only brown mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] was as inhibitory. For sicklepod seedling emergence, while none of the seedmeals were completely inhibitory at the 0.1% rate, six of the seedmeals were completely inhibitory at the 1% rate {brown mustard, arugula [Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.], Siberian wallflower (Erysimum x allionii), English wallflower [Erysimum cheiri (L.) Crantz], sweet alyssum [Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.] and evening-scented stock [Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC.]} and three were completely inhibitory at the 0.5% rate (brown mustard, arugula and sweet alyssum). Intact glucosinolates and their corresponding hydrolysis products varied among the seedmeals with the highest activity. The major hydrolysis products produced by the seedmeals, respectively, were allyl isothiocyanate by brown mustard seedmeal, erucin (4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate) by arugula seedmeal, cheirolin (3-methylsulfonylpropyl isothiocyanate) by Siberian wallflower and English seedmeals, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate and lesquerellin (6-methylthiohexyl isothiocyanate) by sweet alyssum seedmeal, and sulforaphene (4-methylsulfonyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate) by evening-scented stock seedmeal.