Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/16/2004
Publication Date: 12/1/2004
Citation: Wallace, J.R., Burke, J.J., Shurbert, A.M., Burow, M.D., Rowland, D., Ayers, J.L., Porter, D., Holbrook Jr, C.C. 2004. Development of peanut varieties with drought and heat tolerance[abstract]. American Peanut Research and Education Society Proceedings. Volume 36 Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Groundwater available for irrigation is declining; therefore, future water use requires greater efficiency. Creating effective water usage is important for the viability of peanut production in West Texas and New Mexico due to low annual rainfall. Heat stress is also a problem associated with low rainfall that is seen in the semi-arid regions like West Texas and New Mexico. As cultivation of new varieties with high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids are being introduced, heat stress may become more severe since these varieties are very susceptible to temperature stress. Efforts are currently being made in peanut production to develop peanut cultivars that are high yielding under drought and heat stress. By improving resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, the crucial long-term viability of peanut production will remain effective in providing an adequate yield and will be necessary for efficient use of water. To determine the components of tolerance to abiotic stress, twenty runner and four spanish/valencia accessions were planted in a replicated experiment in 2002 and increased to twenty-four runner/virginia and twelve spanish/valencia accessions were added in 2003. For reproducibility the experiment will be replicated in two locations with twelve of each accession types in 2004. The accessions will be evaluated under drought (50% ET replacement) and irrigation (75% ET replacement). The results of these on going experiments are (1) a 26% reduction in pod yield under drought (runner) conditions in 2002; (2) significant differences were seen in flowering, harvest index, paraheliotropism, chlorophyll content, and root mass among genotypes; and (3) the sequencing of mapped ESTs for development of markers used for mapping and selection of drought-associated phenotypes and identifiable genes. We expect that by intercrossing different genotypes to combine contrasting stress responses and identity of markers and genes associated with stress tolerance will result in a useful selection program.