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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #181461

Title: Influence of Cotton Breeding on Yield and Fiber Quality Problems

item Meredith Jr, William

Submitted to: Cotton Incorporated Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/9/2005
Publication Date: 6/16/2005
Citation: Meredith Jr, W.R. 2005. Influence of Cotton Breeding on Yield and Fiber Quality Problems. Cotton Incorporated Proceedings. June 6 - 8, 2005, Memphis, Tennessee.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The problem for Cotton Incorporated’s 18th Engineered Fiber Systems Conference calls for a panel discussion of fiber quality of cotton from Georgia. In 2003, most US cotton textile mills refused to use the Georgia crop. No public disclosure was given by the textile industry to explain their opposition to the Georgia cotton. Since Georgia’s cotton has a history of having the lowest uniformity index of any state, it has been assumed that uniformity was involved in the decision. Because uniformity index is used as an indicator of short fiber content, some have further speculated that short fiber content was involved in the problem. Historical state yearly average data from Mississippi was used to show that fiber properties change due to both technology and weather. For yield year-to-year variation, technology, as measured by regression of yield on year, accounted for 13.5% of the variation while maximum July – August temperature accounted for 21.3% of the total variation. July – August maximum temperature accounted for 34.6, 0.9, 0.2, and 17.8% of the variation among years for staple length, uniformity, strength, and micronaire, respectively. Technology improvement accounted for 3.9, 23.5, 70.2, and 36.6% of the variability, respectively, for these same fiber properties. Little data has been published on genetic – varietal variability for short fiber content. Short fiber content of the 2004 Regional High Quality Tests was determined for 18 varieties and strains in six states. The variety range in short fiber content was 3.0% for MD 9ne to 5.7% for DPL 555BG/RR. The range for locations was 3.5% in Louisiana to 5.2% in Arkansas. The variety differences were similar for all six locations. The question of the varietal and environmental impact on textile efficiency and quality needs further research in order for US cotton to remain competitive in US and foreign markets.