Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/18/2005
Publication Date: 7/31/2006
Citation: Bowman, S.A. , Nowverl, A. 2006. Macronutrients intakes in the United States and the diet quality of adults eating low to high amounts of carbohydrate: NHANES 1999-2002. in Trends in Dietary Carbohydrates Research, p 1-22. Editor: Landow, M.V. NOVA Publishers, Happagua, NY.
Technical Abstract: The study examines the diet of 17,107 Americans ages 2 years and over, who provided complete, reliable, one-day dietary data in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The study had two focus areas. The first area examined the macronutrients profile of U.S. population and six age-gender groups: 2-5 years; 6-11 years; males, 12-19 year; females, 12-19 years; adult males, ages 20 years and over; and adult females, ages 20 years and over. The percent energy from carbohydrate ranged from 49% to 56% among the six groups. However, children 11-19 years of age obtained a higher percent of energy from added sugars than adults (21% vs.16%). For all groups, grain products were the top source of dietary fiber followed by vegetables. The mean percent of total calories from saturated fat among the groups (11%-12%) was above the level recommended by the federal dietary guidance. In children, milk and milk products were the top source of saturated fat, and in adults, meat, poultry, fish and eggs group was the top source. The second study area compared the diet quality of adults (n=8,983) in the four quartiles based on their percentage of total energy from carbohydrate. After adjusting for age and gender in regression models, the adults in the highest carbohydrate quartile had the lowest energy, saturated fat, and cholesterol intakes. They chose low fat foods from milk and meat groups. They ate more whole grains, citrus fruits, melons, and berries that were good sources of dietary fiber. The study showed that a diet high in carbohydrate was high in dietary fiber and low in energy, saturated fat, and cholesterol. A consumer may eat a high carbohydrate diet by choosing foods rich in fiber and low in saturated fat and energy for the prevention of heart disease, certain types of cancers, and obesity.