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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Flinn, Paul
item Hagstrum, David
item Reed, Carl
item Phillips, Thomas

Submitted to: Proceedings of the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Areawid
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/15/2005
Publication Date: 11/1/2007
Citation: Flinn, P.W., Hagstrum, D.W., Reed, C.R., Phillips, T.W. 2007. Area-wide IPM for commercial wheat storage. In: M.J.B. Vreysen, A.S. Robinson, and J. Hendrichs (eds.), Proceedings of the International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, p. 239-246.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The USDA, Agricultural Research Service funded a demonstration project (1998-2003) for area-wide IPM for commercial stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of the USDA-ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state. Over the five years of the study, researchers worked in 60 country and terminal elevators, collecting and analyzing more than 125,000 samples. Wheat at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide was the main method for controlling insect pests in grain elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. The best sampling method for estimating insect density was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro, was developed that interprets insect sampling data and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at risk for insect damage. Recommended treatment strategies and economic analysis were presented to the elevator managers at six week intervals. Elevators that followed our recommendations reduced the number of bins they normally fumigated by at least 50%. The area-wide IPM program was superior to calendar-based management because it ensured that the grain in each bin was only treated when insect densities exceeded economic thresholds. This approach reduced the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces control costs and harm to the environment. A grain-scouting company was started that uses SGA Pro and the sampling tools that were developed in this project. The company is in its third year and has over 30 commercial elevators on contract.

Last Modified: 06/22/2017
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