Submitted to: Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/12/2005
Publication Date: 5/11/2005
Citation: Pacheco, J., Brum, M., Moraes, M., Golde, W.T., Grubman, M.J. 2005. Rapid Protection of Cattle from Direct Challenge with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) by a Single Inoculaiton with an Adenovirus Vectored FMDV Subunit Vaccine. Virology. 337: P205-209. Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) casuses an economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines produced by chemical inactivation of virus are available, but there are concerns about their safety because it has been demonstrated that disease outbreaks have been caused by improper inactivation and escape of infectious virus from vaccine manufacturing centers. In addition, it is difficult to distingush serologically infected animals and animals vaccinated with chemically inactivated vaccine. A possible alternative approach to development of safe, effective FMD vaccines is to produce viral subunit vaccines, which do not contain infectious FMDV, lack the genetic information for a number of viral nonstructural proteins, and thus have a number of advantages over the current strategy. We have developed human adenovirus as an expression vector that contains a noninfectious portion of th FMDV genome and have demonstrated that this vector is able to induce a protective response in swine when challenged with virulent FMDV. In this manuscript we have used an adenovirus vector containing the viral subunits from FMDV serotype A24. Cattle, the most economically important livestock susceptible to FMDV, were given one inoculation of this vaccine candidate and were protected from direct inoculation challenge as well as contact challenge 7 days postvaccination.
Technical Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that swine vaccinated with one dose of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector containing the capsid and 3C proteinase coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were protected when challenged 7 days later with homologous virus. In the current study, we have extended this approach to cattle, the most economically important animals susceptible to FMD. Five cattle were vaccinated with the Ad5-FMDV subunit vaccine and these animals and 2 co-housed control animals were challenged 7 days later. Both control animals developed typical signs of FMD including fever and vesicular lesions on all 4 feet. All 5 vaccinated animals were protected against disseminated disease.