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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


item Ludwig, Gerald

Submitted to: International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/30/2006
Publication Date: 6/1/2006
Citation: Ludwig, G.M. 2006. Review of tank culture of sunshine bass fingerlings. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture. 7:53-68.

Interpretive Summary: Sunshine bass producers want year-round production. Presently fingerling sunshine bass are cultured in ponds but weather prevents winter production. Culture of fry to fingerlings in tanks can be done during the winter but the cost must be reduced for it to be economical. Presently fingerling production requires that live feed, including rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii, be supplied to the fry. New live feed culture methods are helping reduce costs. Concentrated algae pastes may be used instead of live algae for rotifer food. Several products to control ammonia buildup in rotifer and fish cultures have been developed. Proper culture container shape, water filtration and recirculation, oxygen and pH control, continuous feeding and proper harvesting protocols have also increased the efficiency of live food supply. Increased use of highly unsaturated fatty acid enrichment of live feed has increased fry growth. Much research is needed to define an optimum physical, chemical and biological environment. Brood stock development is also needed to develop desirable production characteristics.

Technical Abstract: Most fingerling sunshine bass are cultured in fertilized ponds although production cannot be easily monitored there. Weather, poor water quality and predation can have adverse effects on growth and survival and also makes production seasonal. These negative factors can be overcome if fingerlings can be economically cultured in tanks. Tank culture requires live feed (rotifers and brine shrimp) for the fry’s initial food. Recent developments greatly enhance the feasibility of economical tank production. High density rotifer culture systems that depend upon preserved algae paste instead of unstable live algae cultures have been developed. High ammonia levels are now controlled with chemicals and variable pH levels are and controlled automatically. Use of oxygen and special filters along with improved harvest protocols greatly increase attainable rotifer densities. Brine shrimp production has been made safer and easier with the development of live decapsulated cysts. Enrichment of live food with improved diets has also increased the growth and survival of fingerlings. Additional research on water quality, feeding and stocking rates, nutrition and recirculation systems that save water and energy will facilitate the development of economical tank culture systems.

Last Modified: 06/25/2017
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