|Karlen, Douglas - Doug|
Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/12/2005
Publication Date: 9/1/2005
Citation: Schwarte, A.J., Gibson, L.R., Karlen, D.L., Liebman, M., Jannink, J. 2005. Planting date effects on winter triticale dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. Agronomy Journal. 97:1333-1341. Interpretive Summary: Farmers could distribute their labor and equipment demands through more of each calendar year, produce feed with a better amino acid profile for swine or poultry, and improve environmental quality by increasing the portion of each calendar year that fields are partially covered by living crops by incorporating triticale as a third crop into traditional corn and soybean rotations. This study was conducted to determine the effect of planting date for winter triticale on plant growth and nitrogen uptake at three Iowa locations. This research shows that for maximum forage yield and nitrogen accumulation in Iowa, triticale should be planted in September. These results provide important guidelines for producers who want to spread their risk across more crops and increase biodiversity of the Midwest agricultural landscape.
Technical Abstract: Incorporation of triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) into more diversified cropping systems could provide valuable economic and environmental benefits to producers in the U.S. Corn and Soybean Belt. In order to maximize triticale value, research was conducted to identify planting dates that allowed maximum dry matter production and nitrogen (N) capture. Winter triticale was planted at 10-day intervals from 15 September to 15 October at three Iowa locations: central, northeast, and southwest for two growing seasons: 2002-03 and 2003-04. Above ground dry matter production, N concentration, and N removal were greater at southwest Iowa than central and northeast Iowa. Dry matter production decreased as planting was delayed from late September to early October. A further decline in dry matter production occurred with delay of planting from early to late October. N accumulation at any time during the spring and summer was greater for September than October planted triticale in 2003. At the end of the 2003 season, mid-September planted triticale had accumulated 37% more N than mid-October planted triticale. In 2004, total N capture occurring by early May was less for late-October planted triticale than the other three planting dates, but there were no differences in N capture among the four planting dates from late May until maturity. Dry matter production was greatest when at least 300 growing degree days (GDD) (base 4 degrees C) accumulated between planting and 31 December. These results suggest that triticale should be planted in September to maximize spring forage yield and N accumulation, although later planting dates would provide a higher quality forage if harvest was not delayed into late spring and summer.