Submitted to: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/20/2005
Publication Date: 12/15/2005
Citation: Kimura, K., Harp, J.A., Goff, J.P., Olsen, S.C. 2005. Lymphocytes from one side of the bovine mammary gland migrate to the contra lateral gland and lymph node tissue. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 108(3-4):409-415.
Interpretive Summary: Mastitis is a major problem facing the U.S. dairy industry and is estimated to result in losses to producers of over $1 billion annually. It is not known whether immune responses to invading bacteria in one side of the udder are able to work against bacteria on the other side. In this study, we determined that immune cells stimulated on one side of the udder were in fact able to move to the other side, where they could potentially be able to fight against invading microorganisms. These results contribute to the development of strategies to fight bacterial infections causing mastitis and can result in economic benefit to both producers and consumers.
Technical Abstract: The 4 quarters of the bovine mammary glands are completely separated and 2 quarters on each side (right or left) are connected to ipsi lateral supra mammary lymph nodes. It is not clear whether cells infused into the cistern of the mammary gland are capable of migrating to lymph nodes or the general circulation. To examine cell migration, a prescapular lymph node was removed from each of 2 lactating and 3 non-lactating dairy cows, and isolated lymphocytes were stained with Hoechst 33342. Autologous stained cells were infused into the mammary gland and then activated by intramammary infusion of zymosan-stimulated serum (source of C5a). After 17 h, Escherichia coli J5 bacterin was infused into the contra lateral mammary gland to mimic infection. After 43 h, cows were euthanized and tissue samples (mammary quarters, right and left supra mammary, mesenteric, ileocecal, and prescapularr lymph nodes, liver, and spleen) were collected for microscopic examination as well as flow cytometric analysis. Hoechst stained cells were detected not only in infused quarters, but also in contra lateral quarters as well as in both supra mammary lymph nodes. This indicates that cells infused into the mammary gland migrate to contra lateral tissues and supra mammary lymph nodes.