Submitted to: Animal Reproduction Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2004
Publication Date: 6/2/2004
Citation: Wang, S., Panter, K.E., Gaffield, W., Bunch, T. 2004. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development. Animal Reproduction Sciences.
Interpretive Summary: Three naturally occurring steroidal alkaloids found in green potatoes or potato vines (Solanum tuberosum) were screened for cytotoxicity using bovine oocytes and in vitro fertilized bovine embryos. Exposure of bovine oocytes and pre-implantation embryos to 6 uM of these steroidal glycoalkaloids in culture media inhibited embryo development in vitro. Alpha solanine was the most inhibitory followed by alpha chaconine and solanidine-N-oxide. These and related compounds are found in many plant species consumed by livestock and humans and have the potential of causing overt poisoning or more subtle effects on the oocyte or developing embryo.
Technical Abstract: '-Solanine and '-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, invitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n = 2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 'M of '-solanine, '-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n = 2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 'M of '-solanine, '-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation.