Submitted to: Journal of Insect Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/8/2005
Publication Date: 1/1/2006
Citation: Chen, M., Fellers, J.P., Zhu, Y.C., Stuart, J.J., Hulbert, S., El-Bouhssini, M., Liu, X. 2006. A super-family of genes coding for secreted salivary gland proteins (ssgp) from the hessial fly [mayetiola destructor (say)]. Journal of Insect Science. Interpretive Summary: The salivary glands of the Hessian fly are thought to play an important role in attacking plants. Some of the proteins synthesized in the salivary glands are injected into hosts wheat plants during feeding. The functions of the injected proteins include facilitation of insect feeding, partial digestion of food, and suppression of plant growth. Therefore, identification and characterization of salivary proteins that are injected into host plants are important to understand how these insects attack plants. This manuscript reports the characterization of a super-family of genes that encode proteins with a secretion signal peptide, an indication that the proteins are likely to be injected into host plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that the proteins encoded by these genes are important for the Hessian fly to attack wheat.
Technical Abstract: We have previously characterized a gene coding for the secreted-salivary-gland-protein 11A1 (SSGP-11A1) from the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. Here we report the cloning and characterization of three new genes coding for proteins designated SSGP-11B1, SSGP-11C1, and SSGP-11C2, and their relationship with the SSGP-11A1-encoding gene. Based on their structural conservation, similar regulation, and clustered genomic organization, we concluded that the four genes represented a gene superfamily, designated SSGP-11, which originated from a common ancestor. Cloning, Southern blot and In situ hybridization data suggested each of the SSGP-11 families had multiple members that clustered within short chromosome regions. The presence of a secretion signal peptide, the exclusive expression in the larval stage, and the clustered genomic organization indicated that this superfamily might be important for Hessian fly virulence/avirulence.