Submitted to: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/21/2005
Publication Date: 6/21/2005
Citation: Seal,B.S., King,D.J. 2005. Newcastle disease virus. In: Encyclopedia for Life Sciences. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Available: http:/www.els.net. Interpretive Summary: Not required.
Technical Abstract: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an economically important pathogen of poultry and other birds that has a worldwide distribution. Newcastle disease virus, also referred to as Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), is a member of the order Mononegavirales because it has a single-strand, negative-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome. Although previously classified in the genus Paramyxovirus, NDV is now categorized as an Avulavirus in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. From a practical perspective, NDV isolates are further classified as one of three main pathotypes, based upon clinical forms of disease they cause in chickens. Lentogens are viruses of low virulence and cause mild respiratory or enteric infections. Virus isolates of intermediate virulence that manifest themselves clinically as primarily respiratory pathogens, but do not cause high mortality, are termed mesogens. Highly virulent NDV isolates that cause mortality are designated velogens. The occurrence of virulent NDV infections in poultry are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health. Such events impact international trade. The virus continues to pose a threat to poultry producers, and vaccination is commonly practised in many parts of the world. The virus may cause conjunctivitis in humans.