|Miklas, Phillip - Phil|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/3/2005
Publication Date: 9/1/2006
Citation: Miklas, P.N., Singh, S.P. 2006. Molecular breeding of common bean, phaseolus vulgaris l. Book Chapter. Vol 3:1-31. Inc. Kole (ed.) Genomemapping and molecular breeding in plants. Pulses, sugar, and tuber crops. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: A book (Singh 1999a), workshop proceedings (Singh 2000), and two book chapters (Singh 2001b, 2005) on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been published within the last few years. Also, review articles are available on broadening the genetic base of cultivars (Singh 2001a), development of integrated linkage map (Gepts 1999), and marker-assisted selection (Kelly and Miklas 1999). More recently, Kelly et al. (2003) and Miklas et al. (2005b) reviewed tagging and mapping of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) of economic importance and molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Nonetheless, in this chapter, we shall briefly describe history of the crop, botanical description, economic importance, and breeding objectives and achievements of conventional breeding. The remainder of the chapter will be dedicated to the construction of linkage maps, tagging of genes and QTL of economic importance, and progress achieved by MAS. Considerable progress has been achieved in improving adaptation, plant type, maturity, seed and pod characteristics, yield, and resistance to major abiotic and biotic stresses in the common bean using conventional genetics and breeding methods and morphological and biochemical markers. Availability of DNA-based markers within the past 20 years has provided new opportunities and challenges to bean researchers. These are being used to characterize genetic variability, fingerprinting, gene function and structure, and marker-assisted selection. While there are numerous molecular markers available, especially for resistance to bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases in common bean, proportionately fewer are routinely being used in breeding. Reduced cost, enhanced reliability, and easiness to use should help increase molecular marker usage in the future, especially for germplasm enhancement and introgression of a few traits controlled by major genes in otherwise popular cultivars. For improvement of quantitatively inherited trtaits such as yield and drought resistance, and development of broadly adapted high yielding cultivars, molecular markers may have to be used in conjunction with the conventional genetics and breeding methods. Availability of saturated high-density linkage maps, cloning of target genes, and reliable system of transformation would be expected to modernize and facilitate common bean germplasm enhacement and cultivar development.