|Calamari Jr, Timothy|
Submitted to: American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists Review
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/15/2005
Publication Date: 9/1/2005
Citation: Sawhney, A.P., Dumitras, P.G., Sachinvala, N.D., Calamari Jr, T.A., Bologa, M.K. 2005. Approaches for Reducing or Eliminating Warp Sizing In Modern Weaving: An Interim Report. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists Review. 5(9):23-26.
Interpretive Summary: Approximately 80% of cotton produced worldwide is used for weaving fabrics. These require warp sizing or coating with adhesive material (starch, PVA, CMC, etc.) for efficient weaving. Fabric desizing, to achieve satisfactory bleaching, dyeing, and special finishing, uses expensive chemicals, water, energy, and waste-water treatments, making these processes costly, complext, and environmentally sensitive. To be competitive and profitable, the U.S. cotton textile industry desperately wants to reduce and preferably eliminate warp sizing, which obviously would eliminate fabric desizing as well. The sizing and desizing are centuries old, traditional processes deployed in the manufacture of woven fabrics. Preliminary research results on the subject of size-free weaving, supported by ARS-USDA, have shown that size-free indeed is feasible at least for certain yarn types, fabric styles, and weaving machinery. Research is continuing to include different types of yarns, fabrics and machinery parameters.
Technical Abstract: The goal of this research is to weave cotton fabrics on modern high speed weaving machine without, or with reduced, traditional sizing by improving: (1) yarn quality and structure; (2) starch homogeneity by cavitation technology; (3) yearn preparation for weaving without traditional sizing; and (4) surface engineering/coating of critical loom components to minimize yarn friction and abrasion during weaving. Although actual weaving on a modern machine is still pending, preliminary research has shown that a 100% combed cotton rotor-spun yarn after only washing and drying can be used to efficiently prepare a warp for weaving. Preliminary results on modification of size preparation, by using cavitation technology to reduce sizing requirement, have indicated that the significant improvements in size homogeneity and viscosity achieved through cavitation of potato starch could reduce size add-on by 20% without sacrificing weaving performance. Surface characterization of specially treated or coated steel components has indicated that ceramic-coated reed wire and heddles may improve weavability of size-free warp yarns. Profile modifications of critical loom components and modifications of weaving mechanisms and conditions may also enhance size-free weaving performance.