Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/4/2005
Publication Date: 11/1/2006
Citation: Burelle, N.K., Rodriguez-Kabana, R. 2006. ALLELOCHEMICALS AS BIOPESTICIDES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES. Book Chapter. 15-29. Interpretive Summary: There is great potential for application of allelochemicals for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. The use of allelopathic compounds in either their native, degraded, or processed forms for management of plant parasitic nematodes is an approach that is receiving increased attention as agricultural producers face increasing restrictions on highly toxic chemical biocides and nematicides. In general, these biochemical nematicides have been shown to possess various levels of activity against a wide range of nematodes while being less toxic to nontarget species, less persistent in soil, and sometimes can be produced in large quantities in plant material. However, a greater understanding of the effects of soil microbiological and environmental conditions on allelochemicals is necessary to improve their efficacy. Refinement of currently available application methods and development of new and improved methods may enhance the performance of allelochemicals for nematode control. More investigation is also needed to develop compatible companion applications of biochemical pesticides and biological control agents. More research is needed on the effects of allelochemicals on nematode nervous systems, and on the nature of allelochemicals that act as nematode attractants and repellents. This research area has enormous potential for discovery of new compounds, for elucidating the direct effect of compounds on nematode behavior, and for serving as components in multifaceted approaches to nematode management in the post methyl bromide era.
Technical Abstract: Many allelopathic compounds in their native or processed forms have potential for development as viable alternatives to chemical biocides and nematicides for management of plant parasitic nematodes. Allelochemicals possess various levels of activity against a wide range of plant parasitic nematodes, are less toxic to nontarget species, and less persistent in soil than many chemical nematicides. Operative mechanisms for plant parasitic nematode control with allelopathic compounds include nematicidal activity, nematostatic activity, and nematode behavior modification. Allelochemicals are sometimes produced in large quantities in plant material or as agricultural waste making the use of rotation crops, cover crops, and organic amendments effective means for production and/or distribution of the active compounds. However, a much greater understanding of the effects of soil microbiology and environmental conditions on allelopathic compounds is necessary to improve their efficacy for controlling parasitic nematodes. Also, use of allelochemicals for nematode control will require a knowledge-based approach by growers including specific information on types and population levels of nematodes in production fields. Development of new and improved production and application methods may also enhance the performance of allelochemicals for nematode control. Considerably more research is also needed to develop effective companion applications of these biochemical pesticides and microbial pesticides.