Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/2/2004
Publication Date: 11/23/2004
Citation: Bushman, B.S., Phillips, B.S., Isbell, T., Ou, B., Crane, J.M., Knapp, S.J. 2004. Chemical composition of caneberry (rubus spp.) seeds and oils and their antioxidant potential. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52(26):7982-7987. Interpretive Summary: Caneberries are a niche crop in the Pacific Northwestern United States whose fruit is utilized in a large number of edible applications. The seed, a by product from processing, is currently a waste biomass. This paper characterizes the components of caneberry seeds. We found that all the caneberries examined had 6-7% protein and 11-18% oil. The oil was rich in linoleic acid (53-63%), an oil that is essential in human nutrition. As a result of this work, it may be possible to utilze approximately 400,000 lbs of waste caneberry seeds.
Technical Abstract: Caneberries (Rubus spp. L.) are grown primarily throughout the Pacific Northwestern United States and Canada. Processing of caneberry fruit typically removes the seed, and the development of a value-added use of seeds could expand the market for caneberries and the profit margins for growers. An initial step toward the use of the seeds is a characterization of seed and oil. Our investigation has described compositional characteristics for seeds of five commonly grown caneberry species: red raspberry, black raspberry, boysenberry, Marion blackberry, and evergreen blackberry. Seeds from all five species had 6-7% protein and 11-18% oil. The oils contained 53-63% linoleic acid, 15-31% linolenic acid, and 3-8% saturated fatty acids. The two smaller seeded raspberry species had higher percentages of oil, the lowest amounts of saturated fatty acid, and the highest amounts of linolenic acid. Antioxidant capacities were detected both for whole seeds and for cold-pressed oils but did not correlate to total phenolics or tocopherols. Ellagitannins and free ellagic acid were the main phenolics detected in all five caneberry species and were approximately 3-fold more abundant in the blackberries and the boysenberry than in the raspberries.