Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/28/2006
Publication Date: 6/6/2006
Citation: Peterson, J., Beecher, G.R., Bhagwat, S.A., Dwyer, J., Gebhardt, S.E., Haytowitz, D.B., Holden, J.M. 2006. Flavanones in grapefruit, lemons, limes. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 19:S74-S80. Interpretive Summary: Currently there is much interest in citrus fruits because intakes of them appear to be associated with reduced risk of certain chronic diseases and increased survival rates. One or more of the citrus flavonoids may be responsible for their possible beneficial effects. Analytical data on flavonoids for grapefruits (white, pink and red), lemons, and limes were collected form literature dating from 1968 to 1998 and flavanone profiles of these citrus fruits were prepared. Flavanones (a subclass of flavonoids) constitute >90% of total flavonoids in citrus. Total flavanone content of white grapefruits (fruit or juice) was 27 mg/100g, while red and pink grapefruit contained slightly less, but not significantly so, total flavanone content of 18 mg/100g. Flavanone profile in both varieties was dominated by naringin, a flavanone that contains sugar, neohesperidose, which has tangy or bitter taste. Total flavanone content in lemons was 26 mg/100g and for limes it was 17 mg/100g. The flavanone profile of lemons was dominated by hesperidin and eriocitrin, while only hesperidin was a dominant flavanone in limes. The database will help in investigating relationship between intake of flavanones and disease risk.
Technical Abstract: In order to develop a database for flavanones, the dominant flavonoid class in the genus Citrus, the relevant scientific literature (1968-1998) on flavonoids in grapefruit (Citrus X paradis), lemons (C. limon), and limes (C. aurantofolia) was searched, abstracted, documented, standardized by taxons and units (mg/100g) and examined for quality. Values of eight flavanones (didymin, eriocitrin, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin, neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, poncirin) are presented. White grapefruit had a total flavanone content of 27 mg/100g as aglycones and a distinct profile, dominated by naringin. White grapefruit varieties tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in total flavanones than pink and red varieties. Total flavanone content for lemons was 26 mg/100g and for limes it was 17 mg/100g. The flavanone profile of lemons was dominated by hesperidin and eriocitrin, while only hesperidin was a dominant flavanone in limes. The database will help in investigating relationship between intake of flavanones and disease risk.