Submitted to: Medecine et Nutrition
Publication Type: Literature Review
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/20/2005
Publication Date: 3/4/2005
Citation: Roussel, A.M., Anderson, R.A. 2005. Chrome et sensibilite a l'insuline, Medicine et Nutrition. 41:21-28. Interpretive Summary: One nutrient that is important in the control of blood sugar and insulin is chromium. Dietary intake of chromium is also often suboptimal and we have shown that stresses increase chromium losses leading to further declines in status. This study reviewed the roles of chromium in human nutrition and factors that alter chromium status. This work is important to determine the nutritional needs for chromium and to evaluate the physical and dietary stresses that alter chromium requirements. These results suggest that improved chromium status leading to improved insulin function may help in combating some dietary and physical stresses. This work could be important to the large portion of the population with elevated levels of blood sugar that may be related to insufficient dietary chromium, especially those with added stresses that may further deplete chromium stores.
Technical Abstract: Trivalent chromium, an essential trace element, acts as a potentiator of insulin in regulating glucose homeostasis. Chromium increases insulin sensitivity and function by increasing the number of insulin receptors, insulin binding, phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin internalization. Low dietary chromium intakes are associated with the consumption of high sugar foods and other refined foods that are often not only low in chromium but also increase chromium losses. An optimal chromium status may contribute to improved body composition, decreased depression and decreased risk factors associated with syndrome X, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.