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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: EIGHT-YEAR PERFORMANCE OF 19 PEACH ROOTSTOCKS AT 20 LOCATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA)

Author
item Reighard, G
item Andersen, R
item Anderson, J
item Autio, W
item Beckman, Thomas - Tom
item Baker, T
item Belding, R
item Brown, G
item Byers, P
item Cowgill, W
item Deyton, D
item Durner, E
item Erb, A
item Ferree, D
item Gaus, A
item Godin, R
item Hayden, R
item Hirst, P
item Kadir, S
item Kaps, M
item Larsen, H
item Lindstrom, T
item Miles, N
item Morrison, F
item Myers, S
item Ouellette, D
item Rom, C
item Shane, W
item Taylor, B
item Taylor, K
item Walsh, C
item Warmund, M

Submitted to: Journal of American Pomological Society
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/22/2004
Publication Date: 10/1/2004
Citation: Reighard, G.L., Andersen, R.L., Anderson, J.L., Autio, W.R., Beckman, T.G., Baker, T.P., Belding, R.D., Brown, G.R., Byers, P.L., Cowgill, W.P., Deyton, D., Durner, E., Erb, A., Ferree, D.C., Gaus, A., Godin, R., Hayden, R., Hirst, P., Kadir, S., Kaps, M.L., Larsen, H., Lindstrom, T., Miles, N.W., Morrison, F., Myers, S.C., Ouellette, D., Rom, C.R., Shane, W., Taylor, B.H., Taylor, K., Walsh, C.S., Warmund, M. 2004. Eight-year performance of 19 peach rootstocks at 20 locations in north america. Journal of American Pomological Society. 58(4):174-202.

Interpretive Summary: To increase orchard productivity and efficiency, growers are looking for solutions in the form of new rootstocks that are more resistant to winter cold damage, drought stress, soil anaerobic conditions, root pathogens, soil nematodes, bacterial and fungal cankers, etc. New peach seedling and clonal rootstocks released in the last 20 years have been variously reported to be more productive, tolerant of replant sites, nematodes, Armillaria root rot, crown gall or more winter hardy than previous utilized rootstocks. However, these rootstocks have had only limited testing in North America. To determine the merits of these rootstocks for use under North American conditions a large scale cooperative regional trial was undertaken. Only 7 of 19 rootstocks were common to all locations. Moreover, rootstock x site interactions were common indicating that specific recommendations might need to be made locally rather than regionally much less nationally. However, some trends were evident in the performance of the 7 rootstocks (Lovell, Bailey, Tennessee Natural 281-1, GF 305, Higama, Montclar and Guardian (BY520-9)) common to all locations. After 8 years, trees on Guardian and Lovell rootstocks were the largest. Trees on Guardian, Lovell and Montclar produced the largest yields. However, trees on Tennessee Natural 281-1 and Bailey had the highest yield efficiency. Individual fruit size was largest on Bailey and Higama rootstocks. Rootstock suckering was highest on Guardian rootstock.

Technical Abstract: To increase orchard productivity and efficiency, growers are looking for solutions in the form of new rootstocks that are more resistant to winter cold damage, drought stress, soil anaerobic conditions, root pathogens, soil nematodes, bacterial and fungal cankers, etc. New peach seedling and clonal rootstocks released in the last 20 years have been variously reported to be more productive, tolerant of replant sites, nematodes, Armillaria root rot, crown gall or more winter hardy than previous utilized rootstocks. However, these rootstocks have had only limited testing in North America. To determine the merits of these rootstocks for use under North American conditions a large scale cooperative regional trial was undertaken. Only 7 of 19 rootstocks were common to all locations. Moreover, rootstock x site interactions were common indicating that specific recommendations might need to be made locally rather than regionally much less nationally. However, some trends were evident in the performance of the 7 rootstocks (Lovell, Bailey, Tennessee Natural 281-1, GF 305, Higama, Montclar and Guardian (BY520-9)) common to all locations. After 8 years, trees on Guardian and Lovell rootstocks were the largest. Trees on Guardian, Lovell and Montclar produced the largest yields. However, trees on Tennessee Natural 281-1 and Bailey had the highest yield efficiency. Individual fruit size was largest on Bailey and Higama rootstocks. Rootstock suckering was highest on Guardian rootstock. Nineteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with 'Redhaven' peach were planted at 20 locations in North America in 1994 as an uniform planting of the NC-140 Cooperative Regional Rootstock Project. The rootstocks included peach seedlings from 'Lovell', 'Nemaguard', 'Bailey', Tennessee Natural 281-1', 'Stark's Redleaf', GF 305', 'Higama', 'Montclar', 'Rubira', 'Chui Lum Tao', Tzim Pee Tao', 'H7338013', 'H7338019', 'BY520-8', and 'Guardian BY520-9'. Clonal rootstocks included 'Ishtara', 'Myran', 'S.2729', and 'Ta Tao 5' interstem on 'Lovell'. Data were summarized across the 20 sites in 18 states and provinces over eight years. Tree survival was lowest in the Michigan, Indiana and southeastern Missouri plantings and best in Arkansas, Kansas, Maryland, New York, South Carolina, and Utah. Trunk circumference was largest in southern Illinois, central Tennessee, southeastern Missouri, and central New Jersey. 'Myran' was the most vigorous rootstock followed by 'S.2729' and 'Guardian BY520-9'. 'Ishtara', 'Tzim Pee Tao', and 'Chui Lum Tao' produced the smallest trees. Full bloom date was significantly advanced (<1 day) on 'Myran' rootstock and delayed (1-5 days) on the 'Ta Tao 5' interstem. Fruit maturity was advanced <1 day on 'Myran' and 'Tennessee Natural 281-1' and delayed 1-4 days on 'Ta Tao 5 interstems' when compared to 'Lovell'. The effect of 'Ta Tao 5' on bloom and ripening delay in days was more prolonged in the South (i.e., Georgia, South Carolina). Fruit weight was significantly influenced by rootstock as 'Redhaven' fruit from 'BY520-8' and 'Ta Tao 5' interstem trees were smaller (ca. 10 g) and fruit from 'Ishtara' and 'H7338013' were larger (6-7 g) than fruit from trees on 'Lovell' Cumulative fruit yield (1996-2001) significantly varied among rootstocks, and yield differences were evident between locations at the highest cumulative fruit yields were from Ohio, north central New Jersey, Maryland, and South Carolina. No rootstock yielded significantly more than 'Lovell'. However, 'GF3 305', 'Montclar', Guardian BY520-9' and 'H7338019' yielded equivalent to 'Lovell'. In contrast, 'Ishtara', 'Chui Lum Tao', 'Tzim Pee Tao', 'Bailey', 'Higama', and 'Rubira' and the 'Ta Tao 5' interstem trees often had significantly lower yields than 'Lovell'. Relative ranking of cumulative yields according to rootstocks and geographic locati

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