|Yen, Jong Tseng|
Submitted to: Canadian Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/17/2005
Publication Date: 7/15/2005
Citation: Yen, J.T., Ford, J.J., Klindt, J. 2005. Effect of supplemental copper proteinate on reproductive performance of first- and second-parity sows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 85:205-210.
Interpretive Summary: The number of pigs weaned per sow annually is the most accepted measure of the productivity in a breeding herd. The number of pigs weaned per sow per year is a function of the number of pigs weaned per litter and the number of litters produced per sow per year. The number of litters per sow annually is dependent on the lactation length and the sow's nonproductive days. A nonproductive day is when a sow is neither pregnant nor lactating. To increase the number of litters per sow per year, either the lactation length or nonproductive days or both need to be decreased. A major component of nonproductive days is the weaning-to-estrus interval. In a field study, others observed a shorter weaning-to-estrus interval in sows fed a combination of proteinate forms of copper, zinc, iron, and manganese. A higher level of luteinizing hormone (LH) before weaning was associated with a shorter weaning-to-estrus interval in sows. Copper-histidine complex stimulates luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release from hypothalamic neurons in rats and maybe in pigs. The mineral proteinates used included a copper proteinate containing 10% copper and 1% histidine. It was theorized that copper proteinate, by containing copper-histidine complex, might be the effective material that produced shortened weaning-to-estrus interval in sows fed a combination of proteinate forms of copper, zinc, iron, and manganese. This hypothesis was tested in the present study.
Technical Abstract: The study determined effects of copper proteinate (CuP) on young sow's reproductive performance. In Trial 1, 140 parity-1 and -2 sows received basal (B) or CuP treatment from d 108 of gestation through d 14 postweaning. Each CuP sow received daily 40 g dried molasses supplemented with 0.32% CuP, while B sows received no dried molasses. Postweaningly, sows were housed in large breeding pens (3.6 m × 6.6 m). Weaning-to-estrus interval was shorter (P < 0.05) and breeding percentage by d 7 postweaning was greater (P < 0.05) for CuP than B sows. Trials 2 and 3 used 110 and 56 parity-1 sows, respectively, for treatments from farrowing to d 7 postweaning. Each B sow also received daily 40 g plain dried molasses. Weaned sows were housed in small breeding pens (2.4 m × 3.6 m) for Trial 2, but large pens (same as Trial 1) for Trial 3. No treatment differences (P > 0.48) were detected in Trial 2. In Trial 3, CuP treatment increased (P = 0.09) the percentage of sows bred by d 7 postweaning. In conclusion, supplemental copper proteinate to young sows housed in large breeding pens can increase the percentage bred by d 7 postweaning.