Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/5/2003
Publication Date: 1/5/2004
Citation: Olsen, S.C. 2004. Porcine brucellosis. In: OIE Terrestrial Manual 2004. 5th Edition. Paris, France:Office international des epizooties. p. 777-784. Interpretive Summary: Porcine brucellosis is a caused by Brucella suis, a bacteria with worldwide distribution that can cause severe disease in humans. This paper describes B. suis infections in pigs and the standardized diagnostic techniques for detection infected pigs. Available vaccines to prevent brucellosis in swine are also described.
Technical Abstract: Brucellosis in pigs is caused by Brucella suis, a bacterial infection that, after an initial bacteraemia causes chronic inflammatory lesions in the reproductive organs of both sexes, with occassional localization and lesions in other tissues. The species Brucella suis consists of five biovars, but the infection in pigs is caused by B. Suis biovars 1, 2, or 3. The disease caused by biovars 1 and 3 I similar, while that caused by biovar 2 difers from 1 and 3 in its host range, its limited geographical distribution and its pathology. Biovar 2 is rarely pathogenic for humans, whereas biovars 1 and 3 are highly pathogenic, causing severe disease. Porcine brucellosis is of widespread occurrence; generally, however, the prevalence is low, with the exceptionof South America and South-East Asia where the prevalence is higher. In some areas, B. suis infection has become established in wild or feral pigs - diagnostic methods recommended for wild and feral pigs are the same as for domestic pigs. Various biovars of B. suis cause infections in animals other than pigs, such as reindeer, caribou, hares, and various murine species, and ocassionally in cattle and dogs. Brucella suis infections in animals other than pigs are reviewed in an Appendix at the end of this chapter.