Submitted to: Journal of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/4/2003
Publication Date: 1/9/2004
Citation: Delhon, G., Tulman, E.R., Afonso, C.L., Lu, Z., Concha-Bermejillo, A., Lehmkuhl, H.D., Piccone, M.E., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L. 2004. Genomes of the parapoxviruses of ORF virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. Journal of Virology. 78(1):168-177.
Interpretive Summary: Parapoxviruses (PPVs) represent one of the eight genera within the chordopoxvirus (ChPV) subfamily and include orf virus (ORFV), bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) pseudocowpoxvirus (PCPV), PPV of red deer in New Zealand, and PPV of the grey seal. Parapoxviruses cause nonsystemic, eruptive skin disease in domestic and wild mammals. Because of the clinical resemblance to foot-and-mouth disease, it is important to further characterize members of this genus. The complete DNA sequences of two ORFV isolates and one BPSV isolate were determined, thus providing an overview of PPV genomic organization and gene content as well as a comparison between the two viruses. The genomic differences are consistent with the classification of BPSV and ORFV as two PPV species and provide a comparative view of PPV genomics. This information contributes to the database needed to characterize new isolates of PPVs.
Technical Abstract: Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and orf virus (ORFV), members of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of BPSV strain BV-AR02 and ORFV strains OV-SA00, isolated from a goat, and OV-IA82, isolated from a sheep. Parapoxvirus (PPV) BV-AR02, OV-SA00, and OV-IA82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 kbp, with an average nucleotide composition of 64% G+C. BPSV and ORFV genomes contain 131 and 130 putative genes, respectively, and share colinearity over 127 genes, 88 of which are conserved in all characterized chordopoxviruses. BPSV and ORFV contain 15 and 16 open reading frames (ORFs), respectively, which lack similarity to other poxvirus or cellular proteins. All genes with putative roles in pathogenesis, including a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-like gene, are present in both viruses; however, BPSV contains two extra ankyrin repeat genes absent in ORFV. Interspecies sequence variability is observed in all functional classes of genes but is highest in putative virulence/host range genes, including genes unique to PPV. At the amino acid level, OV-SA00 is 94% identical to OV-IA82 and 71% identical to BV-AR02. Notably, ORFV 006/132, 103, 109, 110, and 116 genes (VEGF, homologues of vaccinia virus A26L, A33R, and A34R, and a novel PPV ORF) show an unusual degree of intraspecies variability. These genomic differences are consistent with the classification of BPSV and ORFV as two PPV species. Compared to other mammalian chordopoxviruses, PPV shares unique genomic features with molluscum contagiosum virus, including a G+C-rich nucleotide composition, three orthologous genes, and a paucity of nucleotide metabolism genes. Together, these data provide a comparative view of PPV genomics.