|Thurston Enriquez, Jeanette|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/2/2004
Publication Date: 1/1/2006
Citation: Enriquez, C., Thurston Enriquez, J.A. 2006. Adenoviruses. In: Waterborne Pathogens. Manual of Water Supply Practices. 2nd Ed. pp 253-258. Interpretive Summary: Adenoviruses are important causes of gastrointestinal, conjunctivae, and respiratory illness in children worldwide. In addition to a short description of adenoviral types and the illnesses they cause, this review covers a) methods to detect adenoviruses in environmental samples; b) modes of adenoviral transmission; c) survival of adenoviruses in the environment; d) waterborne outbreaks caused by adenoviruses; and e) the effectiveness of drinking water treatment to reduce enteric adenoviruses.
Technical Abstract: There are 49 known types of adenoviruses that infect humans, monkeys, cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, and dogs. Adenoviruses are important causes of gastrointestinal, conjunctivae, and respiratory illness in children worldwide. Adenoviruses infect susceptible hosts by contact with mouth, nose, or eye membranes. Mammalian cell culture assays, polymerase chain reaction, and reverse transcription PCR combined with mammalian cell culture have been used by researchers to detect adenoviruses in environmental samples. Enteric adenoviruses have been detected in high concentrations in municipal sludge and are reported to survive longer than other enteric viruses in the environment. Waterborne outbreaks caused by adenoviruses have been documented. While chemical water disinfectants such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine dioxide have been shown to be very effective at inactivating enteric adenoviruses, ultraviolet light is ineffective at doses commonly applied for water disinfection.