Submitted to: Vaccine
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/2/2004
Publication Date: 6/2/2004
Citation: Cupp, M., Cupp, E.W., Navarre, C., Wisnewski, N., Brandt, K., Silver, G., Zhang, D., Panangala, V.S. 2004. Evaluation of a recombinant salivary gland protein (thrombostasin) as a vaccine candidate to disrupt blood-feeding by horn flies. Vaccine 22:17-18. pp.2285-2297. Interpretive Summary: Blood sucking flies that parasitize livestock pose a major barrier to the world's food supply by impeding beef and milk production. The impact on farm income is considerable due to the production losses, the high cost of parasiticides, labor, and lack of efficacy due to development of drug-resistance by horn flies. We have developed a novel vaccine using a recombinant protein thrombostatin which is secreted by the horn fly during blood-feeding. We have demonstrated that the vaccine will protect cattle and rabbits from blood feeding, and delay the egg development in female flies. The impact of this unique mode of immunization protects the cattle from blood feeding while it negates the unnecessary use of expensive toxic pesticides, will prevent the development of drug-resistance in the parasites and will be cost-effective.
Technical Abstract: The potential for controlling blood-feeding by the cattle pest, Haematobia irritans irritans (horn fly), was tested by vaccination against thrombostasin (TS), an inhibitor of mammalian thrombin that is released into skin during horn fly blood-feeding. The increase in blood meal size that occurred for flies feeding on sensitized non-vaccinated hosts was blocked and egg development in female flies was delayed when horn flies fed on rabbits and cattle immunized with recombinant TS. This demonstration of the impact of disrupting TS action by vaccination provides a novel approach toward control of this veterinary pest and offers a paradigm for limiting blood-feeding in other medically-important insect species.