Submitted to: American Chemical Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/3/2004
Publication Date: 8/25/2004
Citation: Chaney, R.L., Reeves, P.G., Ryan, J.A. 2004. Risk assessment for cadmium in phosphate fertilizers [abstract]. American Chemical Society Abstracts. (228th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 22-26, 2004). Interpretive Summary: Summary.
Technical Abstract: Cadmium induced renal tubular dysfunction occurred where subsistence rice farmers produced their lifetime dietary rice on Zn-mine waste contaminated soils in Japan and other Asian countries. Research has shown that polished rice Cd is greatly increased while grain Zn is not increased; and that rice grain is usually deficient in Fe and Zn for humans. These dietary deficiencies promote Cd absorption 10-20-fold compared to diets with adequate Fe and Zn supply. Analysis of exposed Japanese populations has shown a threshold in urinary Cd before tubular dysfunction began, indicating that claims of dietary Cd disease in Europe are not valid. The potential for fertilizer-Cd to enter crops and diets indicates very low chance that fertilizers will cause human Cd disease compared to previous reports on this topic. Philosophically, the extremely high Cd phosphate ores should be avoided or treated to remove Cd in production of phosphate fertilizers or feed ingredients.