Submitted to: American Society of Sugar Cane Technologists
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/2004
Publication Date: 7/1/2004
Citation: Flynn, J., Quebedeaux, K., Powell, G., Montes, G., Perdomo, R., Comstock, J.C. 2004. Comparison of yield parameters and disease incidence of traditional seedcane sources and kleentek, a commercial tissue-culture based seedcane. American Society Of Sugar Cane Technologists. 24:107. Interpretive Summary: The results demonstrate that systemic sugarcane diseases (ratoon stunt and sugarcane yellow leaf) cause losses of cane tonnage and sugar. Planting of disease-free commercially available seedcane produced higher cane tonnage and sugar yields than either thermal treated seedcane (containing sugarcane yellow leaf virus but had Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, causal agent of ratoon stunt eliminated) or field run seedcane (where neither pathogen was eliminated). Growers would benefit using disease-free seedcane to establish plantings in South Florida.
Technical Abstract: Yield parameters and incidence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. Xyli (Lxx), the causal agent of ratoon stunt and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), causal agent of yellow leaf were compared in tradition seedcane and Kleentek®, a commercial tissue-culture based seedcane. Two adjacent field sections located at Okeelanta Corporation near South Bay, Florida were each planted in replicated field trials on December 7, 1999. The fallow trial had been in rice cultivation for the previous cycle and the successive trial had been in continuous sugarcane production. Four cultivars were planted in each trial: CP 89-2143, CP 84-1198, CP 80-1743, and either CP 70-2086 (fallow trial) or CP 80-1827 (successive trial) using three seed sources: 1)Kleenteck®, a commercial tissue-culture based seedcane (KT), 2) progeny of hot water treated seedcane (HT), and 3) field run seedcane without any recent history of thermal treatment (FR). Yield parameters and the incidence of Lxx and SCYLV were determined for the plant first ratoon and second ratoon crops. In both trials among seedcane sources, there were significant differences for tons of cane and sugar per acre but not percent theoretical sugar. Overall, KT plots produced over 6% more stalks than HT and FR plots. KT plots produced over 12% more tonnage and sugar than FR plots. The KT plots produced over 7% and 4% more cane tonnage and sugar than HT plots in the fallow trial and successive trial, respectively. Yield in HT plots was significantly higher for numbers of stalks, cane tonnage and sugar than FR plots in the successive trial. Although the trends were similar for all varieties, there was significant cultivar by seedcane source interactions. CP 89-2143 and CP 80-1743 gave the most consistent yield responses to seedcane source. Pathogen incidence varied between the seedcane sources. In the FR, the initial incidence of Lxx in CP 80-1743 was > 90% in the plant crop of both trials and in CP 80-1827, it was 65% in the successive trial. Although, Lxx was initially absent in KT and HT plots, by second ratoon some spread of Lxx occurred in most cultivars. A higher incidence of Lxx occurred in the successive trial by the second ratoon. However, excluding the FR plots, the highest incidence of Lxx was only 22.5% in the second ratoon. The incidence of SCYLV was initially > 95% in the plant crop of HT and FR plots. The plants in the KT plots were initially disease-free but the incidence of SCYLV gradually increased during the crop cycle. Leaf samples collected at the second ratoon harvest had incidences of 16.9% and 28.8% of SCYLV infection in KT plots in the fallow and successive trials, respectively. Spread of SCYLV into the CP 80-1743 plots appeared to be slower than in the other cultivars.