Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/22/2004
Publication Date: 1/1/2005
Citation: Edme, S.J., Tai, P.Y., Glaz, B.S., Gilbert, R.A., Miller, J.D., Davidson, J.O., Dunckelman, J.W., Comstock, J.C. 2005. Registration of 'CP 96-1252' sugarcane. Crop Science. 45:423. Interpretive Summary: Sugarcane is grown on organic and sand soils in the Lake Okeechobee area of south Florida. This region contributes about 25% of U.S. domestic sugar production. New cultivars that yield well on both soil types are needed, but only rarely are such cultivars identified. Experimental data of CP 96-1252 suggest that it may be one of these unique cultivars. On organic soils, the cane yield of CP 96-1252 was 8.5% higher than that of the commercial reference cultivar, CP 70-1133. In addition, its sugar content was 4.5% higher than that of CP 70-1133. Its high cane and sugar content resulted in a sugar per hectare yield and an economic index on organic soils that were 13.5 and 17.4% higher, respectively, for CP 96-1252 than for CP 70-1133. On sand soils, the cane yield and sugar content of CP 96-1252 were 26.5 and 2.5% higher, respectively, than those of CP 70-1133. The high cane and sugar content resulted in a sugar per hectare yield and an economic index on sand soils that were, respectively, 30.2 and 38.1% higher for CP 96-1252 than for CP 70-1133. Cultivar resistance and tolerance are the major sources of sugarcane disease control, but they are challenging to identify and quantify because plants are growing, and therefore exposed to disease pressures all year. CP 96-1252 has shown adequate resistance for commercial production in Florida to eye spot, rust, smut, leaf scald, ratoon stunting disease, and sugarcane mosaic virus. CP 96-1252 is susceptible to sugarcane yellow leaf virus, but its high yields in experimental plots were obtained regardless of this susceptibility. The commercial release of CP 96-1252 makes available to Florida growers a high-yielding, disease-resistant cultivar that can be used to continue providing the U.S. an affordable and stable sugar supply. Additionally, CP 96-1252 will be tested extensively by sugarcane farmers in Central America, who grow mostly 'CP' cultivars.
Technical Abstract: Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars is critical for growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to test yields, cold tolerance, and disease resistance of 11 new sugarcane genotypes in the plant-cane, first-ratoon, and second-ratoon crops in commercial fields at 10 commercial sugarcane sites in Florida. CP 96-1252, an outstanding genotype in these tests, was selected from progeny of the cross, CP 90-1533 x 'CP 84-1198'. The female parent, CP 90-1533, was derived from a polycross made to broaden the germplasm base. An S. officinarum clone, NG 77-252 was the female parent of that cross. CP 96-1252 was developed through cooperative research by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida-Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released in the autumn of 2003. The mean stalk weights of CP 96-1252 and CP 70-1133, the commercial reference cultivar, were 1.35 and 1.52 kg, respectively. Yields of theoretical recoverable sugar and cane were, for CP 96-1252, 122.8 g sugar per kg cane and 158.5 tons cane per ha, respectively, and 118.0 g per kg and 143.4 tons per ha, respectively, for CP 70-1133. This resulted in mean yields of 19.4 and 16.8 tons of sugar per ha for CP 96-1252 and CP 70-1133, respectively. CP 96-1252 has shown adequate resistance to all major diseases in Florida except to sugarcane yellow leaf virus. Estimates of cold tolerance for CP 96-1252 were inconclusive. Based on its high sugar and tonnage yields and disease resistance, CP 96-1252 may make a substantial commercial contribution to sugarcane production in Florida.