Submitted to: Animal Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/17/2005
Publication Date: 5/1/2006
Citation: Neill, J.D., Liebler-Tenorio, E., Ridpath, J.F. 2006. Global gene expression profiling of bovine immature B cells using serial analysis of gene expression. Animal Biotechnology. 17(1):21-31. Interpretive Summary: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral pathogen of cattle in the United States. It causes significant monetary losses to beef and dairy producers by causing death losses, as well as production and reproductive losses. When BVDV infect cattle, the virus first attacks the immune system, killing many of the immune cells that protect the animal. This allows other disease causing agents to gain a foothold and cause more severe disease. One of the first targets of the virus is the B cells, or antibody producing cells, in tissues of the gut. In order to better understand the process by which BVDV destroys these cells, we purified them from noninfected cattle and using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), we determined the normal pattern of gene expression in these cells. We were able to identify many of the genes that are responsible for normal cellular function as well as genes that allow these cells to produce antibodies and respond to infection. This is the first step in understanding how these cells are infected by and are killed by BVDV. This is also new information that can be used by researchers working with B cells. This will provide information about how they participate in producing an immune response in cattle.
Technical Abstract: The Peyer’s patches of the small intestine are important sites of antigen processing. The follicles of the Peyer’s patches receive the antigen transported by the M cells at the mucosal surface and then play a major role in development of both protective humoral and mucosal immune responses. These sites are also important in the pathology caused by immunosuppressive viruses such as bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The immature B lymphocytes of the ileal Peyer’s patch follicle (IPPF) are one of the first major sites of replication and cellular destruction following infection by BVDV. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was employed to derive the global gene expression profile of B-lymphocytes isolated from the IPPF. Analysis of the SAGE data revealed the identity of genes and the level to which they are expressed by IPPF B lymphocytes. This analysis indicated that they were metabolically active and that the transcripts encoding proteins necessary for a response to antigen presentation were expressed. These transcripts included the B cell receptor components CD76a and b (Ig-alpha and Ig-beta) and accessory c-src family kinases Lyn and Blk. Furthermore, many of the positive and negative regulators, and accessory proteins that are necessary for B cell antigen receptor signaling were identified. Also present were transcripts encoding interleukins and their cognate receptors. Overall, this SAGE analysis yielded a global picture of gene expression in IPPF B lymphocytes and provides a starting point for the comparison of gene expression in further functional studies.