Submitted to: Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/2005
Publication Date: 6/20/2005
Citation: Klungness, L.M., Jang, E.B., Mau, R.F., Vargas, R.I., Sugano, J.S., Fujitani, E. 2005. New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) in hawaii. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 9(2):5-15. Interpretive Summary: Sanitation (removal of infested fruit) has not been practiced widely in Hawaii, with the result that fruit fly populations are very high, in spite of heavy pesticide application. This study demonstrates that pesticide, even when combined with smashing culled fruit does not kill enough of the larvae in the fruit. Other techniques, such as using a specially adapted screen tent called an augmentorium to dispose of infested fruit, can prevent 100% of the flies that emerge from that fruit from reentering the crop. Also burying fruit 0.46 m under ground, and placing fruit on screen on the ground (edges buried) can help prevent emerging flies from reentering the crop.
Technical Abstract: Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures (named an augmentorium, plural augmentoria) to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bactrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of whole or smashed fruit. Smashing fruit does not sufficiently reduce the rate of eclosion to be a reliable population control measure. Tilling fruit into the ground only partially reduce eclosion. Burying fruit 0.15 and 0.30 m deep also partially reduced eclosion. Burying fruit 0.46 m deep prevented adult fly eclosion. Screen between the infested fruit and the ground prevented 90.2% of fly eclosion (edges of the screen were buried to prevent the escape of eclosing adult flies). Larvae pupate within 0.7 m from their host fruit (mean distance = 13.88 plus or minus 1.76 cm, 95% CL ' 10.4 to 17.4 cm). Augmentoria entrapped 100% of adult flies enclosing from fruit placed inside the structure. The authors suggest that the 3 methods of interdicting adult fly eclosion should be practiced. They are, in order of effectiveness, placing cull fruit in augmentoria, burying the fruit 0.46 m under ground, or under ground, or placing fruit on screen under the 0.7 m beyond the fruit pile.