Submitted to: International Symposium on Talipia in Aquaculture
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/13/2000
Publication Date: 9/3/2000
Citation: SHOEMAKER, C.A., KLESIUS, P.H., EVANS, J.J. DISEASES OF TILAPIA WITH EMPHASIS ON ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PATHOGENS. PROCEEDINGS FROM THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TALIPIA AQUACULTURE. 2000.
Technical Abstract: Few studies have dealt with diseases of tilapia. Tilapia have been suggested as more disease resistant than other fish. Reports of viral diseases are few in the literature. Lymphocystis (Iridovirus family) has been reported as well as an unidentified virus affecting young tilapia in Isreal. Parasitic disease agents are not unique to tilapia. Protozoan parasites (i.e. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Costia sp. (Ichthyobodo sp.), Ambiphyra sp., Apiosoma sp.), monogenetic trematodes and intermediate stages of digenetic trematodes may all cause problems in cultured tilapia. Parasitic fungi consisting of 17 fungal species have been reported in tilapia. The two most important are Saprolegnia parasitica and Saprolegnia ferax. Bacteria caused diseases include Streptococcus spp. (including Streptococcus iniae, L. garviae, non-hemolytic group B Streptococcus), Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae), Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium columnare and Edwardsiella tarda. The most significant is streptococcal disease which is responsible for annual losses of tens of millions of dollars in the US alone. Thus, this review will emphasize the species of Streptococcus that are recognized as causes of streptococcal disease in tilapia and other species of cultured fish, worldwide. The identification, distribution, epidemiology of Streptococcus spp. and the role of aquaculture production practices (water re-use, water quality, stocking densities, stress, etc.) in disease transmission will be summarized. Consideration of possible health management practices to control or limit the effects of these agents will also be discussed