Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2004
Publication Date: 3/29/2004
Citation: Armstrong, K.R., Wakamatsu, N., King, D.J., Seal, B.S., Kapczynski, D.R., Brown, C.C. 2004. Apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells in birds infected with newcastle disease viruses. Meeting Abstract.
Technical Abstract: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly infectious viral disease of many species of birds, including poultry. It is synonymous with avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), which is a nonsegmented, single-strand, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus. Strains and isolates of NDV show enormous differences in their ability to cause disease and death in susceptible birds. The clinical form ranges from subclinical infection to 100% mortality in a short period of the time. Clinical manifestation of disease depends on the virus effects on respiratory, enteric, and/or nervous systems. Many factors related to the host (species, age, and immune status), virus strain (pathotype, dosage, and route of infection), and environmental or social stress can influence the severity and the course of the disease, as well as the occurrence and distribution of the lesions. The objective of this research was to investigate a relationship between pancreatic apoptosis and virulent Newcastle disease virus infection in chickens, turkeys, and pigeons. In this experiment, two virulent strains of NDV, Beaudette C (neurotropic) and California Exotic Newcastle Disease virus (viscerotropic), were inoculated intraconjunctivally and/or intranasally in SPF chickens, SPF turkeys, commercial turkeys, and racing pigeons. PBS was also inoculated into the chickens, turkeys, and pigeons as the negative control. Birds were euthanized, and the pancreatic tissues were collected and evaluated by histopathology, viral distribution, and apoptosis. Both neurotropic and viscerotropic virulent NDV was found to infect the pancreas and cause severe apoptosis of exocrine cells in chickens and SPF turkeys. Commercial turkeys and pigeons were found to have low susceptibility for CA END viruses. Apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells could be caused without NDV infection. Apoptosis in lymphoid organs is an important mechanism in lymphoid depletion during NDV infection. Whether pancreatic apoptosis during NDV infection influences the disease severity, and whether the ability to induce apoptosis differs in viral virulence remains to be determined.