Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2004
Publication Date: 7/25/2004
Citation: Kubena, L.F., McReynolds, J.L., Byrd II, J.A., Anderson, R.C., Ricke, S.C., Nisbet, D.J. 2004. Influence of experimental chlorate product (ECP) in drinking water on environment of the gastrointestinal tract and Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in laying hens during an induced molt [abstract]. Poultry Science. 82(Suppl. 1):69. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The use of feed deprivation to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in Laying hens is a common practice in commercial egg production. Unfortunately, an increased risk of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) may result from the use of this method, therefore alternative methods are needed. Hens over 50 wk of age were divided into 12 groups of 11 hens each and placed in individual laying cages. Two wk prior to dietary changes, hens were placed on an 8-h light and 16 h-dark photoperiod that continued for the 9-day experiment. All hens were challenged orally with 106 cfu of SE on day 4 of the study. Treatments were non-fed hens with distilled water (NFD), non-fed hens with the experimental chlorate product (ECP which provided 15mM chlorate ion concentration water; NFECP), alfalfa diets with distilled water (ALD), and alfalfa diets with ECP water (ALECP), with 3 replicate groups of 11 hens in each treatment. There were no significant changes in the pH of the crop due to treatment. When compared with the NFD hens, there were no significant differences in the lactic acid concentrations of the crop and ceca for the NFECP or ALD hens; however, the lactic acid concentrations were significantly higher in the ALECP hens. When compared with the NFD hens, there were increases in the concentrations of propionic acid and total volatile fatty acids of the ceca in the NFECP, ALD, and ALECP hens. When compared with NFD hens, the numbers of SE positive crop and ceca were reduced in the NFECP hens (67%, 35%), ALD hens (9%, 0%), and ALECP hens (84%, 59%). The ECP reduced invasion of the liver, spleen, and ovaries by more than 50%. The intake of alfalfa was low in this study and most likely accounts for the lowered protection against SE, when compared with previous studies. Results of this study suggest that ECP added to the drinking water may be a useful tool to reduce the risk of SE during an induced molt by feed deprivation or the use of alfalfa molting diets. The combination of ECP and the alfalfa molting diet was the most efficacious for several parameters, indicating that an active fermentation during molting is an important factor in maintaining a hostile environment for enteropathogens.