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Title: Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield components: Weed control and soil moisture interactions

item Webber Iii, Charles

Submitted to: Southern Region of the American Society for Horticultural Science
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2004
Publication Date: 6/1/2004
Citation: Webber III, C.L., Shrefler, J. 2004. Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield components: Weed control and soil moisture interactions [abstract]. 64th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Southern Region. 39(3):654-655.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an alternative cropping option for the Southern Plains region with increasing production and market potential. Producers report that weed competition is the most detrimental factor influencing bean yields and therefore profitability. In addition, depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to determine the effect of weed competition on the yield components of four dry bean varieties. The research design included two years (2001 and 2003), four dry bean varieties, two weed control levels, two moisture levels, and four replications. The four dry bean varieties included black bean cv. 'Black Knight,' navy bean cv. 'Gryphon,' pink bean cv. 'ISB 462,' and pinto bean cv. 'Apache.' In the two-year study, the beans were planted the last week of April with a four-row planter set on 91-cm row spacing. The two weed control treatments included season long (90-day) "weed-free" and "weedy-check" treatments. The "irrigated" beans received a total (irrigation and rainfall) of 45 cm (2001) and 42 cm (2003) compared to only 26 cm (2001) and 25 cm (2003) of rainfall for the "non-irrigated" (dryland) treatment. The greater soil moisture resulted in greater bean yields for the irrigated by significantly increasing the number of seeds/pod and producing larger, heavier seeds (g/100 seeds). Black beans produced greater yields than the other three bean varieties by producing significantly greater seeds/pod and plants/hectare. Averaged across bean varieties and soil moisture treatments, weed competition reduced seed yields by 27%, and decreased three of the four yield components: pods/plant (13%), weight per 100 seeds (8%), and plant populations (11%). This field research on dry bean production will be used to gain a greater understanding of the mode of action of seed yield depression in dry beans and possible methods for adapting the cultural practices for this region to maximize dry bean seed yields.