Submitted to: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2002
Publication Date: 9/1/2002
Citation: Shetty, P., Iyengar, V., Sawaya, A., Diaz, E., Ma, G., Hernandez-Triana, M., Forrester, T., Valencia, M., Rush, E., Adeyemo, A., Jahoor, F., Roberts, S. 2002. Application of stable isotopic techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases like obesity and niddm in developing societies. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 23(3 Suppl):174-179. Interpretive Summary: As the economies of underdeveloped countries improve there is an emergence of chronic degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension that are linked to changes in diet and lifestyle. In order to better understand the physiological and metabolic mechanisms underlying these conditions the International Atomic Energy Agency has launched a program to use stable isotope techniques to study vulnerable populations in several countries in the North and South. For example in Brazil studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition on adult risk factors. In Jamaica we are involved in studies to determine the impact of body composition and energy expenditure, measured by stable isotopes, on the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.
Technical Abstract: Economic development in developing societies characterized by industrialization, urbanization, and globalization has seen the emergence of an epidemic of diet- and life-style-related chronic degenerative diseases. A research project was initiated under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria under its Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) to promote the use of stable isotopic techniques to document the extent of the problem and to understand the determinants of this epidemic. The principal objectives of this CRP involving countries both in the North and the South are to define the magnitude of the problem of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in developing countries, to identify the vulnerable groups at increased risk, and to attempt to describe the metabolic and physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. These comparative international studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition (Brazil) and socioeconomic differentials (Mexico) on adult risk factors; the composition of the daily diet on obesity (Chile); levels of patterns of physical activity of older adults (China) as well as their influence on weight gain and obesity (Cuba, Nigeria); the impact of body composition and energy expenditure on the evolution frank diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance (Jamaica), and of body compositional changes and the role of inflammatory cytokines on impaired glucose tolerance (India). The last study conducted in New Zealand was aimed at comparing the energy expenditures of Maori (Pacific Island) with New Zealanders of European descent.